Mobile Wearable Nano-Bio Health Monitoring Systems with Smartphones as Base Stations

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Gas sensing systems are increasingly investigated for applications in environmental monitoring air quality control, fire detection , automotive industry fuel combustion monitoring and polluting gases of automobiles , industrial production process control automation, detection of gases in mines, detection of gas leakages in power stations , medical applications e. Different types of gas sensors exist such as optical, surface acoustic wave SAW , electrochemical, capacitive, catalytic, and semiconductor gas sensors.

Gas sensing methods can be split into two categories: based on variation of electrical properties and based on variation of other properties [ 3 ]. The electrical variation methods rely on the following substances as a sensing material: metal-oxide-semiconductor MOS stacks, polymers, moisture absorbing materials, and carbon nanotubes. MOS based sensors have been widely utilized as they are low cost and have high sensitivity.

However, some MOS sensors need high operating temperature, which restricts their application. Another issue is the relatively lengthy time needed for the gas sensor to recover after each gas exposure, which is impractical for applications where gas concentration changes quickly. Studies of MOS nanodimension structures e. Polymer-based sensors are detecting gases using a polymer layer that is changing its physical properties mass, dielectric properties upon gas absorption.

Polymer sensors detect volatile organic compounds such as alcohols, formaldehyde, aromatic compounds or halogenated compounds. The detection process is occurring at room temperature as opposed to MOS sensors. Polymer gas sensors possess benefits such as high sensitivities and short response times. Their shortcomings include lack of long-term stability, reversibility and reduced selectivity [ 3 ].

Carbon nanotube sensors overcome the problem of insufficient sensitivity at room temperature observed at MOS sensors. The properties of carbon nanotubes CNTs allow the development of high-sensitive gas sensors. CNT sensors demonstrate ppm-levels response for a range of gases at room temperature, which makes them perfect for low power applications. Their electrical properties carry high sensitivity to very small quantities of gases such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen, ammonia, oxide, and alcohol at room temperature unlike MOS sensors, which should be heated by a supplementary heater in order to operate normally [ 7 ].

To enhance selectivity and sensitivity of sensing, CNTs are often combined with other materials. Moisture absorbing materials could be embedded with RFID tags for detection of moisture, because their dielectric constant might be altered by the water content in the environment. They can be used also as a substrate of the RFID tag antenna because the dielectric constant of moisture absorbing materials could be regulated by the moisture of the neighboring air.

The tags enveloped by moisture absorbing material are appropriate for mass production and low cost [ 3 ]. The methods for gas sensing that are based on variation of non-electrical properties include optical, calorimetric, gas chromatograph, and acoustic sensing.

Optical sensors rely on spectroscopy, which uses emission spectrometry and absorption. The principle of absorption spectrometry is based on absorption of the photons at specific gas wavelengths; the absorption depends on the concentration of photons. Infrared gas sensors operate on the principle of molecular absorption spectrometry; each gas has its own particular absorption properties to infrared radiation with different wavelengths. In general, optical sensors could attain better selectivity, sensitivity, and stability in comparison to non-optical methods.

Still, their applications are limited due to their relatively high cost and the need for micro sizes [ 10 ]. Calorimetric sensors are solid-state devices. They are detecting gases with a substantial variation of thermal conductivity with reference to the thermal conductivity of air e. Gas chromatograph is a classic analytical method with exceptional capabilities for separation as well as high selectivity and sensitivity [ 11 ]. However, gas chromatograph sensors are expensive and their miniaturization still requires technology advancement.

Ultrasonic based acoustic sensors are principally classified as 1 ultrasonic, 2 attenuation, and 3 acoustic impedance. Best studied is the ultrasonic category, i. The major method for detection of sound velocity is to determine the time-of-flight that measures the travel time of ultrasonic waves at a known distance to calculate their speed of propagation. The measured gas speed is used for 1 identification of gases by determining gas properties such as gas concentration, which is related to the difference of sound propagation time, and for 2 determining the components or the molar weight of various gases in mixtures proceeding from thermodynamic considerations [ 12 ].

Generally, ultrasonic sensors can overcome some shortcomings of gas sensors such as short lifetime and secondary pollution. Attenuation is the energy loss due to thermal losses and scattering when an acoustic wave propagates through a medium. Each gas demonstrates particular attenuation, which is giving the means to determine target gases. Gas attenuation can be utilized together with sound velocity to find gas properties [ 13 ]. However, the attenuation method is not so reliable as the method of sound speed because it is prone to the presence of particles and droplets or the turbulence in the gas.

Acoustic impedance is typically employed for assessment of gas density. Therefore, by the quantified acoustic impedance and speed of sound, the density of a gas could be found out. In any case, the quantification of the acoustic impedance of gases is remarkably troublesome, particularly in a process environment and consequently it is rarely used in practice.

Biochemical sensors can convert a biological or chemical amount into an electrical signal. The biosensor includes a receptor usually a biocomponent such as analyte molecule which performs the actual molecular detection of the targeted element , chemically sensitive layer, transducer and electronic signal processor.

We may categorize biochemical sensors in several aspects. Considering the observed parameter, sensors can be categorized as chemical or biochemical, taking into account their structure they can be disposable, reversible, irreversible, or re-usable. With respect to their external form, they can be classified as planar or flow cells. Biochemical sensors intended for detection of electrical signal either directly sense the electric charges amperometric sensors or they sense the electric field induced by electric charges potentiometric sensors [ 14 ].

System-on-chip SoC biosensors are integrated on-chip and connected the active circuitry. SoC biosensors have numerous improvements with respect to sensors based on principles such as mechanical, optical and other methods. A major advantage is the ease of integration in CMOS integrated circuits that provides compact size, immunity to noise, potential to multiple detection of the biomolecules, etc.

For cost-efficient commercialization of SoC sensors, it is crucial that all manufacturing processes are completely compatible with CMOS technologies [ 15 ]. Planar semiconductor CMOS technology devices can be used as the foundation for biological and chemical sensors where sensing can occur optically or electrically. Planar Field Effect Transistors FETs can be converted to chemically sensitive sensors by adjusting their gate oxide with membranes or molecular receptors to sense an analyte of interest.

Fundamental rule of the molecular detecting is the selective attraction between the test molecules and the target molecules. As the target molecules have electrical charges in the electrolyte solution, the nearby channel conductance is affected by these electric charges via the field effect. The electric charges have dissimilar shape depending on the biochemical reactions associated with the particular detection.

Interaction of a charged probe will result in accumulation or depletion of carriers within the transistor structure, which can be electrically detected by observing a direct variation in conductance or related electrical property [ 16 ]. MEMS systems are a combination of electronics and mechanical structures at a micro- and nanometer scale. The reason for using these technologies is the ease of integration onto a CMOS chip in which the electrical signals are processed. Generally, the characteristics of a sensor include sensitivity, detection limit, and noise.

The limit of detection is characterized as the minimum concentration of the target molecules to be detected by the sensor. Noise can originate from non-selective tying between the noise molecules and the test molecules because in practice, the noise molecules are significantly more in number than the target molecules so that the avoidance of the non-selective tying is crucial for biosensor operation [ 17 ]. Another class of biochemical sensors transduce the chemical tying into mechanical deformation.

Chemical reactions provoke mechanical deformation adherent to the nature of nanotechnology, e. One approach to utilize chemical-mechanical transformation is to use micro or nanometer scale cantilevers. Micro and nanocantilevers exhibit change of surface stress caused by a particular biomolecular interaction, for example, self-assembled monolayer arrangement, hybridization of DNA, cellular and antigen-antibody binding. These methods are barely accomplished into a compact gadget because of the massive optical detection equipment and poor selectivity performance [ 18 ].

Implementation of membrane technology is an alternative surface stress sensing mechanism. Polymer transducers with thin membrane are capable to exhibit of biomolecular sensing.

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The variation of adsorption quantity on the resonator is determined by detection of resonance frequency detection. Thin membrane transducers have a couple of valuable characteristics: 1 they are stronger and more solid than cantilever beams and they are very responsive to surface reaction, which allows easy functionalization by using mainstream printing techniques, and 2 the sensing surface is physically separated from the electrical detection surface, which is suitable for accurate low-noise measurements of capacitance [ 19 ]. In addition to the conventional field effect transistor CMOS technology, printed thin-film transistor TFT technology could be used for sensor development as well.

With printable TFT innovation, it is possible to incorporate an extensive variety of organic, inorganic, nanostructure functional materials for electronics, batteries, energy harvesting and sensor and display devices through coating or printing processes. This enables a new generation of low-cost, large-area flexible electronics generally unachievable with conventional silicon IC technologies.

Nevertheless, there is an extensive trade-off in the device performance and integration density if using TFT technology compared to traditional Si-microelectronics [ 20 ].

Mobile Wearable Nano-Bio Health Monitoring Systems with Smartphones as Base Stations

Different selections of solution processable semiconductor materials are existing for TFTs: metal oxide, organic semiconductors, carbon nanotubes. The quick advances in materials widens the opportunities for manufacturing organic transistors and circuits using printing processes. Of all these, the organic semiconductors are distinguished for its mechanical flexibility, fast processing at low temperatures, and great potential for further performance improvement [ 21 ].

For practical sensor development, a hybrid integration of transducer circuits composed of printed transistors and a common read-out and signal processing chip might be employed. Various sensing materials together with an antenna can be incorporated into the transducer in the printing processes [ 22 ]. Current developments of Micro Electro Mechanical Systems MEMS technology and communications allowed for the advent of low-cost, low-power sensor nodes having multiple functions in a compact formfactor.

They are the basis of wireless sensor networks. Wireless Sensor Networks WSNs comprises huge number of sensor nodes also called motes that are spatially distributed autonomous devices that can accept input information from the connected sensor s , process the information and transmit the output to other devices via a wireless network.

WSNs were driven initially by military applications e. Nowadays, wireless sensor networks are allowing a level of integration between computers and the physical world that has been unthinkable before. Advances in microelectronics and communications industries have been a key enabler of the development of huge networks of sensors. Nevertheless, wireless connectivity of sensors might be considered an application facilitator rather than a feature of the sensors [ 24 ]. This is due to the fact that wired sensor networks on the scale that is required would be too expensive to set up and maintain, which means they are unusable for applications such as monitoring of the environment, health, military, etc [ 25 ].

Typically, a WSN node contains one or more sensors attached, embedded microprocessor with limited computational ability and memory, transceiver unit, and power unit [ 26 ].

These units allow each node to communicate with the network. Communication between the nodes is centralized — it can be a networking platform of dedicated servers or remote cloud servers.

This network architecture corresponds to the core of the IoT, that is to provide immediate access to information at any time and any place. The sensor is sampling the physical measure of interest into a signal that is processed by the subsequent microcontroller giving analogue to digital conversion as well as computational capability and storage. Next, the result is passed to the wireless transceiver unit for connecting to the network [ 27 ]. The sensor transducer converts physical quantities into electrical signals.

Sensor output signals may be either digital or analogue which requires for the latter case to have an Analog to Digital Converter ADC included either built-in or attached to the sensor in order to digitalize the information to let the CPU to process it. The microprocessor unit consists of an embedded CPU and memory; the latter includes program memory, RAM and optionally non-volatile data memory.

A distinctive characteristic of processors in motes is that they have several modes of operation — typically active, idle, and sleep. The purpose is to preserve power without obstructing the CPU operation when it is required. The transceiver unit allows the communication between the sensor nodes and the communication with a centralized hub. The power unit consists of an energy source for supplying power to the mote.


The energy source is usually an electrochemical battery but an energy harvester can also be implemented to convert external energy such as kinetic, wind, thermal, solar, electromagnetic energy into electrical energy for recharging the battery; an external power generator may also be used for recharging [ 25 ]. Depending on the actual implementation, motes typically 1 realize data-logging, processing, and transmitting sensor information or 2 they are operating as a gateway in the wireless network composed of all the sensors that are sending data to a hub point.

Sensor nodes are described by several parameters ranging from physical weight, size, and battery life to electrical characteristics for the embedded CPU and transceiver unit in the respective node architecture. One approach for handling the data generated by the networks of sensors is to use a platform of dedicated servers for collecting and processing information originating from the sensors. Another approach is to rely on cloud computing service. Typically, general purpose IoT applications rely on cloud computing which inherently provides remote access via Internet [ 23 ].

The most popular communication standard is the IEEE The protocol stack for WSN integrates power with routing aspects. It is composed of 5 layers physical, data link, network, transport, application and 3 planes power management, mobility management, task management to ensure reliable and power efficient data transmission through the wireless medium [ 27 , 29 ]. WSNs usually operate in various environments, which make them significantly different from other wireless networks such as cellular mobile networks or ad hoc networks, etc.

In addition, WSNs normally have strict requirements for power, computation, and memory. All these constraints predetermine the cost of sensor devices and network topology and pose specific WSN design challenges. The most important design factors include reliability fault tolerance , density of nodes network size , network topology and scalability, power consumption, hardware specifications, quality of service, security of communications [ 30 ].

Foremost among all is the factor of security. Many WSNs are intended to collect sensitive data e. The wireless character of the sensor networks greatly complicates detecting and avoiding of snooping on the data. Best choice for ensuring WSN security is to implement hardware-based encryption rather than software encryption, which is advantageous in terms of speed and memory handling for network nodes [ 25 ]. Radio Frequency IDentification RFID is a notably evolving technology for automated identification based on near-field electromagnetic tagging.

It is a wireless method for sending and receiving data for various identification applications. Compared to other identification systems e. RFID has many advantages since it is cost and power efficient, withstands severe physical environments, permits concurrent identification, and does not require line-of-sight LoS for communication. A RFID can turn common daily objects into mobile network nodes that might be followed and monitored, and can respond to action requests.

All these perfectly fit the notion of Internet of Things. A RFID system typically consists of 3 major components: 1 an application host, which provides the interface to encode and decode the ID data from data reader into a personal computer or a mainframe, 2 an RFID tag, which stores the identification information or code, and 3 a tag reader or tag integrator, which sends polling signals to an RFID transponder transmitter-responder or to a tag that should be identified [ 31 ].

A tag analogous to a barcode is a unique entity that can be attached to an object or a person and thereby enables information environments to remotely distinguish objects and individuals, track their position, detect their status, etc. The RFID tag is a microchip with programmed identification plus an antenna. The distance between the tag and the tag reader in fact the reader is the base station should be short enough so that the signal could be coupled.

In reality, there is no true antenna because no far-field transmission is employed.

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The tag communicates with the tag reader by electromagnetic coupling via radio frequencies. Parts of the tag and parts of the reader are coupled together in a way that is analogous to the transformer windings inductive coupling or as opposing plates in a capacitor capacitive coupling. Generally, the information acquired by the tag is further processed by a more complex computer equipment. In fact, the tag is a kind of low-level network, which enables the transmission of sensor data.

The principle of operation is so that the tag behaves as an electrical load on the tag reader. Hence, the tag can transfer information to the reader by altering its own impedance. The RFID tag changes the value of the impedance via an electronic chip that is effectively an active switch. In result, the tag is not required to create a transmitted signal, and the impedance switching sample is utilized to encode the data in the tag.

At any random moment, a tag reader can just read one tag in its locality and a tag must be read by one tag reader [ 32 ]. Tags might be either active or passive. Active tags have a dedicated power supply a battery. They possess extended processing functionalities and have some capabilities for pressure or temperature sensing. Active tags are characterized with an operating perimeter of hundred meters and a relatively lower error rate. On the contrary, passive tags have a limited operating perimeter of up to several meters and they are characterized with a pretty high error rate.

Passive tags are cheaper and that is why they are most common in the RFID marketplace. They have no physical power source as they are powered by the near-field coupling between the reader the radio waves caused by the reader and the RFID tag. Passive tags have limited processing and communication capabilities but have no sensing capabilities for the information-carrying medium [ 33 ].

RFID technology has numerous applications such as tracking of assets and people, healthcare, agriculture, environment monitoring, etc. Many tracking RFID applications are based on the universal communication and computing technologies available [ 34 , 35 , 36 , 37 ]. So far these are relatively separate areas of research and development.

RFID systems are primarily used for identification of objects or tracking their location without delivering information about the object and its physical condition. In numerous applications the location or the identity of an object is not enough and extra information is needed — it can be extracted from other parameters characterizing the environmental conditions. Sensor networks could help in such cases. WSNs are systems consisting of small sensor nodes that can collect and deliver information by detecting environmental conditions, for example, temperature, humidity, light, sound, pressure, vibration, etc [ 38 ].

Nevertheless, the identity and location of an object is still vital information and it can be extracted by RFID techniques. In these situations, the ideal arrangement is to combine both technologies in order to ensure extended capabilities, portability, and scalability [ 39 ].

Sensors with integrated RFID tags can be classified in two categories: 1 tags communicating with RFID readers only and 2 tags communicating with each other and creating an ad hoc network [ 38 ]. Another option for integration is the so-called mixed architecture where the sensor nodes and the RFID tags remain physically separate but they exist together and they operate separately in an integrated network.

Accordingly, it is not necessary to design a separate hardware device in order to integrate the benefits of both technologies. The proportion of the adult-population in the European Union is in a phase of rapid increase. The aging of the population is accompanied by increased occurrence and spread of chronic diseases, and hence a significant increase in healthcare costs.

Staying at their own homes, or at places freely chosen by the elderly people, is one of the approaches already taken improve the quality of life and to reduce healthcare costs of the aging population. The idea is to support elderly people to improve their quality of life and to create better conditions for their stay in the environment of their choice. To do this, it is necessary to develop modern equipment and systems for health status monitoring and to introduce comprehensive eHealth technologies. The use of such technologies at home or at home-like setting is still in its infancy, but this method is one of the most promising approaches to facilitate the independent living of the elderly people.

Data aggregators can be devices that provide only simple offline storage and analysis features. However, in modern monitoring systems, they typically perform pre-processing and retransmission of online analysis data to systems of higher hierarchical level. Since the end of the last century, global trends have seen a rapid increase in the share of elderly people. In , one-third of the Europeans will be over the age of 65 [ 41 ]; for the USA this figure is expected to rise to 70 million in year This estimated figure is double than the one counted in In the average age, which allows daily activities can be carried out without difficulty, was about 67 for women and 63 for men.

The most developed countries are concerned about the aging of their population [ 42 ]. Quality of life is deteriorating with aging, which leads to worsening the skills and abilities of the people [ 43 ]. Much of the elderly people suffer from chronic illnesses that require medical treatment or periodic reviews. Various initiatives have been taken to handle these issues. It acquires immense importance in helping elderly people who live alone in their own homes and need care [ 44 ].

The proposed assistance aims at increasing the autonomy and quality of life of the consumer and contributing to its social consolidation. The results in this area have a direct public impact. Many authors have discussed the requirements and engineering aspects of ALS. Development of technology and research are directed towards systems for fall detection, detection of pressure to a chair or bed, video monitoring, motion and tilt sensors and devices, accelerometers, smart clock with gyroscopes or worn on the belt [ 45 ].

A European Union initiative [ 46 ] is being undertaken to increase the care of the aging through the penetration and use an information and technologies of communication. It aims to help elderly people to carry out their daily activities, thereby increasing their autonomy [ 47 ]. Assisting everyday life depends specifically on the situation of the user. As a result, the technology adapts to the user, not vice versa. Internal and external monitoring is necessary especially for elderly people or people with disabilities heavy hearing, deafness, limited mobility, etc.

The use of intelligent sensors is a desirable service that can potentially increase consumer autonomy and independence, while reducing the risk of life alone. The services and systems developed aim being tailored to elderly people and their cognitive problems. By default, it is expected that the systems are able to integrate several subsystems that have been developed by different manufacturers [ 48 ].

Also, it is expected that every user could to adapt quickly and easily so that no constraints and difficulties arise. However, the real implementations are still fragmented and isolated. The aim is to help elderly people by making use of four technologies: sensors, networks, monitoring daily activities and environment visualizing. Sensors determine the location of people and objects. The networks integrate motion sensors, cameras and switches that define the activity and visualize the environment.

Numerous authors make analyses of experimental data from sensor systems used to monitor and demonstrate the functional capabilities of elderly people and analyze and produce statistics on how they change over time. The built-in system includes sensors in all rooms: kitchen, living room, vestibule, bedroom, bathroom, etc. There are high requirements for data visualization displays as it reflects to the end-user perception of the service [ 47 ].

The Intelligent Home Monitoring System at the University of Virginia [ 49 ] focuses on collecting data using a set of cheap, unobtrusive sensors. The information was recorded and analyzed in an integrated data system. It is managed through the Internet and collects the information in a passive way respecting the privacy of the older adults. The Rochester University [ 50 ] developed a prototype smart medical home, consisting of computers, infrared sensors, video cameras and biosensors.

The main service is used for a medical consultation through a conversation between the medical person and the patient. The activities and movements of the users are also monitored. The process supports decision making for the patient and caring personnel. Intelligent sensors and devices use has preference in comparison to the more important than human interaction.

The SOPRANO Integrated Project [ 52 ] aims to extend the time that people can spend living alone in their own homes being independent in their activities and feeling safer. Required technologies include products and services that allow people to perform their everyday tasks. Aviles-Lopez et al. It is achieved by maintaining a certain degree of independence using new types of mobile embedded computing devices, wireless intelligent sensors and so on.

The platform is contextual, mobile, invisible, and adaptable supposing that the users are traced and identified in space thanks for the wearable device as watch, bag, cups or other embedded accessory in clothing. If the older user has suffered a fall or an unpleasant event, the system should alert caring personnel without any interference. The communication way to the end-user and data on blood pressure, sugar levels, etc. Drug management applications have a special place in the daily schedule. In this way, the supervising medical consultant could do a medical examination remotely and change the dose of any drug.

Other components of the supervision include cameras and sensors with a built-in accelerometer. This provides an opportunity to track the motion of users and instantly record an event such as a fall. Patients who use electrically powered wheelchairs can move freely. However, very often they need help in opening or closing doors. Various studies have found that large TVs and monitors are not the most appropriate means of monitoring.

The whole system should be easy to use by the elderly. They find it difficult to adopt new technologies that they cannot understand. Homes are equipped with sensors that measure the state of the users and maintain communication with their friends and relatives. Holtzinger and others [ 44 ] assessed the wrist unit that is well received by users.

It is designed to monitor the vital signs and detect different situations such as loss of consciousness, detection of falling, etc. Healey and others [ 54 ] presented a monitoring prototype system that can record, transmit and analyze permanent echocardiogram data. The system is also designed to have the ability to record events, activities, and various medical symptoms. Different researchers do experiments using systems to monitor daily activities, activity, exercises and medical tests.

Madeira et al. The proposed system combines intelligent items such as wheelchairs and walkers with corresponding built-in sensors for remote measurement of mechanical and physiological parameters. In this way, the elderly will be monitored in different situations. Some studies [ 56 , 57 , 58 ] focus on the development of a smart home where the elderly and disabled people can enjoy quality of life and greater independence. Smart monitors can constantly monitor patients and their vital parameters. Technologies that can track changes in activities and alert the care provider are: a smoke detector; flood detector; temperature sensor; gas detector; occupancy sensor for bed; occupancy sensor for the chair; a fall detector; hanging around the neck, on the wrist, or clinging to clothing; an epilepsy sensor located under the bed and more.

The publication of Wang et al. This device may be a dedicated computer or black box equipped with one or more wireless interface cards. Independent devices can communicate with the appropriate server over the Internet that provides web-based interfaces to allow cares, healthcare providers and healthcare professionals to monitor the environment and analyze measured data. De Florio and Blondia [ 60 ] do not believe that the expansion of the traditional approaches to social organization might be enough to provide effective support for the elderly [ 47 ].

All listed and described projects are only part of the AAL activities collected. Analyzing the results and new opportunities and trends shows that the topics discussed are up-to-date and will continue to develop significantly in the coming years. Various projects are aimed at solving many problems of some groups adults, adults with special needs and people with diseases. Applied approaches and applications are specific, which limits the dissemination of results.

Minimize false signals, which are the common cause of system compromises. In addition to the constantly available communication interface between the observer and the user, it is also possible to automatically detect falls as well as momentary observation of many vital parameters. The most common reasons that can cause falling are obstacles at home and the aging. Why is so important to detect falls? Falls can result in critical injuries, especially for the elderly.

Unfortunately, a fall detection system does not detect all fall cases. The most common injuries are to the head and lips which results in long-term complications. So, the faster help is very important in these cases [ 61 ]. They are able to give the difference between an emergency case and everyday movements, for example, can detect if the person is just laying down or there is a sudden change in the position, which means a fall.

Most falls happen at home because there are a lot of hazards there, such as slippery floors, clutter, poor lighting, unstable furniture, obstructed ways and pets, etc [ 61 ]. The first measure to be taken into account is to conduct a detailed analysis of the house and to identify the possible reasons which may lead to injuries. Then a preventive checklist can be developed to minimize the risk of fall. Overall, a wearable system consists of interconnected modules that can be placed at different body areas. The most common types of external sensors are the camera sensors.

They are placed in fixed locations where the person daily activities will be performed. The main disadvantage of these sensors is that the person can fall out of the visibility area and the system can be unable to track the user. Another type of external sensors is the proximity sensors, which are used in fall detection systems.

They are commonly attached to walking-aid devices cane, walker, etc. When the user suddenly falls, the sensor detects the change of the position of the SOI. The disadvantages involve the price of such sensors and the short proximity range. An alternative to the external sensors is the wearable sensor, which is employed into fall detection and prevention systems.

Widely used in fall detection systems are the accelerometers because of their price and the fact that can be placed on different parts of the body. They can also be embedded in other devices as shoes, belts, watches, etc. The advantage of accelerometers is that with a single sensor a lot of movement characteristics can be successfully detected, especially falls. Due to the rapid development of Micro-electro-mechanical systems technologies, such as accelerators, gyroscopes, magnetic sensors, particularly wearable sensor-based human activity recognition technologies, such devices become more and more attractive for use in ambient assisted living systems, especially in monitoring elderly people.

Because of the advances in these technologies, MEMS sensors become cheaper, lighter and small enough to carry. These systems do not require the use of base station, as cameras which have to be installed on particular area. These systems collect the data in passive mode and do not create electromagnetic pollution. Accelerometers and gyroscopes are easy to wear but also have less power consumption and also less sensitivity to body movements, which may cause false alarms.

But from a commercial point of view, this technology is the most utilized one for commercial devices and can take the form of a belt or watch, for example. The advanced wearable sensors incorporated multiple sensor technologies, for example in [ 66 ] proposed a system of gyroscopes and accelerometers, another approach has barometric sensors in additions for high variations sensors. Interesting solutions for fall detections and prevention away from home became attractive after phone technology developments.

The system is based on accelerometers which are used in mobile phones. There are also systems that can not only detect a fall but also can specify the fall type. Such systems are proposed from [ 68 , 69 ] and incorporate a tri-axis accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer, as well as the data processing, fall detection and messaging. Ambient devices detect the environment of a person under protection. The technologies are used in commercial fall detection devices and the most common one is the infra-red technology, but there is also vibration sensing, noise sensing, etc.

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In order to cover the whole area, the system has to be installed in all needed rooms which is one of the drawbacks of such systems. It is explained that such system has the potential to be used at home providing personalized services and detecting abnormalities of elders who live alone. Another way for fall detection is through vibration sensors, which are incorporated into the flooring. Electromagnetic sensors are present [ 72 ] which are again incorporated into the flooring, which can generate images of objects touched to the floor.

There are systems for fall detection based on lasers. A laser is used which interacts with light-sensitive device, which generate together a network of theoretical cross-sections, which detect stable objects [ 73 ]. Systems based on object monitoring have the same disadvantage as ambient devices and must be installed in all necessary rooms in order to cover the required range. Another issue is privacy, working with photo material from everyday life.

There are cases in which pictures are sent only when a fall is detected. Camera-based monitor the posture and shape of the subject during and after a fall, which happens in fractions of seconds. A considerable amount of processing power is consumed by the image dealing. To compensate the computational cost, images are usually compacted and with smaller pixels in a pre-processing stage.

In camera-based sensing systems there are different ways in detecting falls. Some systems are based on human skeleton, but their computational cost is not valuable for real time situations. Other types calculate and transform some parameters, as falling angle, vertical projection histogram etc. Nevertheless, regardless of the number of cameras installed, continuous monitoring is still restricted to the camera locations.

Another disadvantage is that such systems are influenced by light variability, which leads to lower recognition from laboratory environment to outdoor environment. Due to such limitations, vision-based human activity recognition systems are not so well suited to most elderly care applications. The system has low power consumed hardware design and highly efficient algorithm which could extend the service time of the wearable device. Overall, a wearable system is comprised of interconnected modules, which can be installed at different parts of the body.

Each module consists of sensors, Analog to Digital Converter, computing elements, RF circuitry and hybrid power supplies batteries and energy scavenging generator. One of the most important vital signs to be monitored is the body temperature. Another important issue that should be taken into account is the location at which the temperature will be measured because it is different at the different locations. There are several means that can be used for measurements, such as thermistors, thermoelectric effect, optical means, etc.

The most common technique for non-invasive measurement using wearable sensors is the thermistor. There are methods proposed in [ 75 ], where negative temperature coefficient resistors a temperature sensing element is used and the textile wires incorporated into the sensor element are integrated into wearable system for monitoring, in this case baby jacket.

Other methods propose textile-based temperature sensor which is incorporated into knitted structure [ 76 ]. There are a lot of wearable temperature sensors available at the market that can be directly attached to the skin, as LM35 [ 77 ]. The heart rate is one of the most important signs, especially when we talk for elderly care, which should be precisely monitored. The heart should be in perfect working condition in order to consider that the patient is healthy.

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The heart rate of a healthy adult in resting position ranges from 60 to beats per minute. This parameter can be used in order to diagnose a lot of cardiovascular diseases. Heart rate can be measured through various technologies, as electrical, optical or strain sensors. The electrical measurements include electrocardiography through electrodes.

There are some methods for such measurements proposed, for example in [ 78 ] chest electrodes are investigated which are silver coated, without the need to use gel or paste during the measurements. Other approaches use soft micro fluidics and adhesive surfaces to achieve highly stretchable state-of-the art systems [ 79 ]. Other researches describe magnetic sensitive sensors which are able to measure quasi noncontact pulse rate. These sensors can measure magneto-cardiogram in non-shielded conditions [ 80 , 81 ].

Respiration rate is very indicative parameter for distinguishing diseases as asthma, sleeping apnea, anemia, etc. A healthy resting person respiration rate is typically one breath in every 6. Elderly people often have difficulties in breathing normal because the lungs expansion and contraction rates decreases. The methods for respiration rate measurement can be divided into two types, the first one detects directly the airflow during the breathing, the second one measure indirectly responding to chest and its expansion and contraction.

For directly measurements sensors can be placed near the nose or mouth and respond to changes in the temperature of the air, the pressure, humidity, the concentration of carbon dioxide, etc [ 82 ]. The indirect measures involve physical parameters that need to be monitored, as changes in the lung volume and movement. Blood pressure is typically detected using sphygmomanometers, but they need stationary setup, not cost effective and do not have the possibility of monitoring.

Nowadays the state-of-the-art sensors are capacitive sensitive strain sensors [ 84 ], which are compressible and piezoelectric. The difference between both of them is that compressible capacitive strain sensors are composed of elastic dielectric, while the piezoresistive sensors are composed of robust dielectric placed between 2 flexible electrodes.

When an external pressure is applied to the dielectric, it will lead to change in the capacitance of the device. In the same way, if the piezoelectric material is strained, this will generate an induced voltage in the device. For example, in [ 85 ] a conformable lead zirconate titanate sensors are presented, which have piezoelectric response. It is reported that these sensors have 0. Such kind of performance ensures that the sensor can be used for blood pressure measurements.

Another approach that can be used for blood pressure measurements is the RFID radio-frequency identification technique, but such device require implantation under skin, such as presented in [ 86 ]. Oxygenation is the oxygen saturated hemoglobin compared to total hemoglobin in the blood, which is saturated and unsaturated.

The oxygenation may be separated into three groups: tissue, venous and peripheral oxygenation. The measurement technique is non-invasive in fresh pulsatile arterial blood. The most common method for measurements is using optic-based device, such as a pulse oximeter. The working principle is based on generated light by light emitting diodes through parts of the body as earlobe, forehead, wrist, fingertips, etc.

Nowadays with the advances in organic electronics, the production of OLED organic light emitting diode and organic photo-detectors became prime devices for use in pulse oxygenation measurement due to their comfort in use [ 77 ]. Such sensors are described in details in [ 87 ].

The measurements for blood glucose involve the glucose amount in human blood which concentration is usually lower in the morning and increases after every meal. If the blood glucose is out of its normal range, this may indicate health problems as hyperglycemia low levels or diabetes high levels.

In recent years, the number of people with diabetes has increased. It has been found that frequent possibly continuous measurement of blood glucose levels is essential for conducting insulin therapy and minimizing the harmful effects on the body. Modern methods of testing include periodic tests in specialized laboratories or analysis of daily profiles periodically over several hours , using a portable blood analyzer at home.

For this purpose, after a pinch, usually on the fingertip, a certain amount drop of blood is delivered to a special test strip which is placed in the analyzer and within a few seconds the current blood glucose level is indicated. These persistent pricks cause discomfort, especially in young children, and rarely can lead to infections. New developments in the art are directed to alternative methods for measuring glucose concentration, e. Saliva nano-bio-sensor is presented there for noninvasive glucose monitoring which provide low-cost, accurate and disposable bio-sensor. Another method for non-invasive method is proposed in [ 89 ].

The described methods are still not applicable in mass practice. Another part of the research is directed to the development of invasive methods for the delivery and analysis of blood micro-bleeds. At this stage, there are no data on the implementation and applications in the mass practice of nanobiobs for determining blood glucose levels by analyzing blood micro beats in the absence of pain sensations for the patient.

Research of human activity is becoming a most popular and relevant topic for multiple scientific areas. Human activity recognition includes mobile computing [ 90 ], surveillance-based security [ 91 ], context-aware computing [ 92 ] and ambient assistive living [ 93 ]. The sensor technologies and data processing techniques have achieved much progress.

Work on these supporting technologies has led to developments in the area of data collection and transfer and information integration. Many of the solutions to real problems related to human life are increasingly dependent on the human activity recognition. Recognizing human activity as a topic of work can contribute to many important activities related to security and monitoring, preservation of the environment, help in maintaining independent living and aging, etc.

To develop such a system, it is crucial to work on four main tasks. There is a variety of tools, methods and technologies available to implement each task. Sensor-based activity is used for activity monitoring. The approaches involve computer surveillance, structural modelling, characteristic elements extraction, action extraction and movement tracking with the main purpose being to make analysis aiming to recognize certain pattern based on collected visual information.

Another category is based on the application of recently developed sensor network technologies for activity monitoring [ 94 ]. Sensors are attached to the monitored person. This approach is applicable in order to follow physical movements such as workouts. There are multiple types of sensors available for activity monitoring contact sensors, accelerometers, audio and motion detectors etc.

The sensors are divided according to their purpose — there are different types based on particular output signals, involving theoretical principles and defined by technical infrastructure. They are represented within two basic categories according to the way they are positioned during the activity monitoring process. Activity monitoring based on Wearable sensor. This type of sensor is attached directly or indirectly to the observed person.

While the monitored object performs any type of action, the sensors generate signals. In this way we are able to monitor features which describe the human state of mind and respective motion patterns. The sensors can be put into clothing, in shoe soles or heels, inside cell phones, watches and other mobile devices etc. They can be located directly on the body as well. From them we get the necessary indicators about the position and movement of the test object at a given moment, the pulse, temperature, and so on.

There are different types of relevant sensor information applicable for various types of activities. Accelerometer sensors are sensors for activity monitoring. They are used to monitor actions such as body movements such as walking, running, jumping and more. The microchip assembly, called radio frequency identification RFID is already used in animals.

Radio-frequency identification RFID employs the use of a wireless non-contact system, using radio-frequency electromagnetic fields to transmit data from a microchip, biochip or a microscopic technology called a nano-chip, for the purposes of automatic identification and tracking. NanoCHIP microchips have the smallest needle with the most advanced microchip technology available. Microchips cannot be lost, changed, or removed. Why I want a microchip implant.

E Birth control danger: With the same means used for mind control microchips, waves of a certain frequency, satellites, GPS system, ground stations and antennas , births can be controlled too! The dreaded implantable-chip. A wide variety of injectable tracking chips options are available to you, such as free samples. A microchip will normally last the lifetime of your pet because it is composed of biocompatible materials that will not degenerate over time. For microchip, it could be beneficial for noncompliant patients but still poses great risks for potential misuse of the device.

Lowest cost pet microchips. A subdermal implant typically contains a unique ID number that can be linked to information contained in an external database, such as personal identification, medical history, medications, allergies, and contact information. In the s and 60s, electrical implants were inserted into the brains of animals and humans, especially in the U.

In this section you can find synonyms for the word "human tracking devices", similar queries, as well as a gallery of images showing the full picture of possible uses for this word Expressions. With a range of attachments, our small tracking devices are designed to be convenient and easy to use. Time will tell whether society will embrace microchip implants and GPS safety devices for humans or view it as a personal tracking mechanism for the government and large organizations.

Microchips are tiny radio frequency identifying devices roughly the size of a grain of rice. Where Next for Microchip Implants? Employees at Three Square Market, a technology company in Wisconsin, will have a small chip injected in their hands this week for security convenience. The procedure is virtually painless.

This helps us to be able to track them if they get lost. A wide variety of human tracking device options are available to you, such as use, type, and function. Well, if the technology is safe and reliable, it could be a great way to empty our prisons of "soft" criminals. It acknowledges that RFID's use in health care "represents another promising development in information technology, but also raises important ethical, legal and social issues. Solusat, Are there any tracking chips available in South Africa The only tracking devices that we are aware of in SA is fitted like a collar around the neck.

In some states, like Virginia, legislation is in process to stop this from happening. The microchip was invented in Over the years they have perfected them from being tracking devices to being able to influence people by speaking to them directly through these chips and influencing their actions.

Trovan also markets chips for tracking personal objects. Microchip Tracking Services. On April 5, , the Georgia Senate passed Senate Bill that prohibits forced microchip implants in humans and that would make it a misdemeanor for anyone to require them, including employers.

I just really think people should be implanted with microchip. Sade, M. Should humans get microchip implants? Should humans get microchip implant? I believe people shouldn't get a microchip implant, because, even though it would potentially be helpful in kidnappings or other tragedies Humans should not be implanted with microchips.

FDA approves computer chip for humans Devices could help doctors with stored medical information the microchip is inserted under the skin in a procedure that takes less than 20 minutes and An American company is marketing an implantable identity microchip. Unreliable web sites claimed that H. The unique neural activity in a human being is as powerful as a microchip. The ACLU announced opposition to mandatory microchip implantation when applied to humans. Human Microchip implant manufacturer Dangerous Things said that there are now around 10, "cyborgs" -- or humans with digital chips in them -- across the globe.

Should YOU microchip your child? Tech expert explains whether the device would keep your kid safe unveiled plans to offer hi-tech devices to its employees. Pricing and Availability on millions of electronic components from Digi-Key Electronics. The microchip itself does not have a battery—it is activated by a scanner that is passed over the area, and the radiowaves put out by the scanner activate the chip. Health care legislation requires that U.

But in more recent times, the companies that manufacture these devices are trying to expand the use of this technology in humans. That was the case when doctors at the Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston discovered that a woman had an RFID microchip implanted underneath her skin.

This means you have the power to act immediately to recover your pet in a scenario where your pet runs off or escapes. A microchip implant is a device inserted into a living body, often for tracking and identification purposes. Easy to use, cost effective, worldwide real time tracking for everyone Microchip Implants in Humans. The chips have been implanted in animals for years to help identify lost pets and now the technology is moving to humans.

Another Companies use them to track deliveries. Applications include animal tracking, product tracking, inventory control, access and passport control, and so on. I've been looking for info on Microchip implants for humans and luckily I ran into your blog, it has great info on what I'm looking and is going to be quite useful for the paper I'm working on.

Swedish company Epicenter will embed a chip into about workers, so bosses Please do not let your employer microchip you. A state senator introduced a bill Wednesday that would prevent people from forcibly having microchips or other tracking devices IBM, Verichip and the Fourth Reich - The Microchip - The real agenda behind the new ID card and biometrics is to prepare us for the microchip implant.

Automatically tracking his location in real time, it will connect Yes for microchip. Although a dog ID can help by providing a way to reunite lost pets with owners, you should also have your pet microchipped in No there is no Microchip that works with GPS. State lawmaker wants to ban forced tracking implants in humans.

They are typically radio frequency identification RFID chips, which are inserted under the skin and are read with a RFID reader to access the information contained on the devices. There are also GPS devices already approved for implantation in humans. The thing with tracking devices — they reflect our hypocrisy.

Devices may start disappearing altogether. They deal with law enforcement and consumers, selling stealth GPS tracking devices called "Nav Genius" that you can hide in the navigation systems of anybody's car. New developments in technology have opened up new expectations in the fabrication of tiny devices, which could be implanted in the human body for locating and tracking persons, or for remotely controlling human biological functions.

Thank you for tuning in and seeking with us. Radio frequency identification RFID technology can be thought of as a next-generation bar code. In fact, in the very near future, because of microchipping, our technology will — literally — be part of our skin. Often when one thinks of a microchip they think of the "animal tracking device" that is inserted into the back of the animals neck and able to be scanned by a scanner at the veterinary clinic for records etc about the pet.

Now, he has a chip of his own. Today we have even Along with all of these concerns for individuals entering the U. Clearly technology is moving further and further towards an ability to track everything from motorised inventory to livestock, and finally humans. The microchip only contains a registration number; without accurate registration associated with the microchip number, a lost, microchipped animal that is scanned might not be returned to its owner. Trackimo uses GPS-GSM technology that allows you to track down your valuables, vehicles, and even loved ones by attaching it to their clothing or Microchip Tracking Devices For Humans One of the questions many concerned parents often find themselves asking is can you put a tracking chip in your child?

Naturally, it makes complete sense for a parents to call upon the latest technological tools to boost child safety, but sometimes the line between science fiction and real life gets a Implanted devices have been used in farm animals for a while, and RFID chips with GPS capacity are commonly implanted in personal pets for tracking purposes. Many people choose to use small, personal GPS tracking devices to share their location with family members, particularly if the user is prone to medical emergencies, is elderly, or is a PocketFinder 3G GPS, Wi-Fi, Cell ID Trackers for children, Pets, Seniors, vehicles, gps tracking devices, child tracker, senior tracker, gps locators, gps pet tracker, gps vehicle tracker, gps dog collar The best tracking devices and smart collars for cats plus reading a microchip requires a trip to the vet.

And now a privacy expert For 25 years Microchip ID Systems has provided solutions and high quality products for the animal world. Wealthy and upper class Mexicans living in fear of being kidnapped are turning to GPS tracking devices as a precautionary measure. A Wisconsin tech company is offering its employees microchip implants that can be used to scan into the building and purchase food The pioneers known for inventing microchip technology are Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce.

The chip is roughly the size of a grain of rice and will be the first implantable GPS chip of its kind for animals. This is good news for owners, as lost pets are a big problem in the US. Although not implanted, it has been standard protocol for a nearly a decade for many hospitals to equip newborn babies with an RFID chip attached to a bracelet on their ankles.

Each device contains a unique numerical code that can be read by a portable scanning device from a distance of a few feet. Bosses are already tracking employees with microchip implants so it basically replaces a lot of things you have other communication devices for, whether it be credit cards, or keys, or things Lawmaker wants to ban forced microchip implants, markings legislature that would make it a felony to forcibly implant the tracking devices in any human being, including the mentally impaired Keeps tabs on your vital professional devices with RFID enabled devices, whether you travel or not and even if you're not forgetful - you never know what can happen to your beloved iPhone, laptop September 11, , was a watershed moment in world history not simply because of the attack on and fall of the World Trade Centers.

A microchip implant is a device that can be implanted into the body of a human or animal. Microchipping or "chipping" can also be used in reference to the microchip transponder implant that is placed under the skin. Do-It-Yourself Microchipping? Admittedly, the idea of implanting GPS tracking devices in humans is a scary concept, but parents 20 years in the future might find themselves doing just that!

With fair regularity, stories appear in the media about technology that will allow the Beast to number and track every person on earth. Today's implantable microchip devices used for identifying animals are the precursors of devices that may monitor, report on, and even regulate a spectrum of conditions in the bodies of animals and humans. A select group of people had already been "chipped" with devices that automatically open doors, turn on lights, and perform other low-level miracles.

RFID, as the name implies, uses radio waves as a medium to transmit information. Keywords: Microchip, implant, biohacking, privacy, health tracking, embodied where humans and digital devices are evolving side-by-side Lupton, There is very little information on just how many pets get returned to owner because of microchips. If your pet wanders off, the GPS signal should be able to show you exactly where they are.

Forget smartphones, tablets and even wearable gadgets - get a microchip implant instead. It allows tracking the real time location of your devices, or check the history log of the device with an easily customizable time range. The technology behind these chips has been available for decades and are currently used for identifying livestock, pets, and even tracking packages. A human microchip implant is typically an identifying integrated circuit device or RFID transponder encased in silicate glass and implanted in the body of a human being.

Currently, RFID can use passive and active communication, while microchip implants for humans rely on passive communication. It is only the size of a rice grain with an identification number in the computer chip. News Have you been secretly microchipped? Many people I see have microchips inserted in their bodies and may not even be aware of it.

A passive device does not have a self-contained power supply, a reader provides the power to capture the information. The device also sounds very similar to something that was approved in There is no GPS microchip implant for humans! The building knows who he is, where he is, and what he expects to happen.

A simple RFID tag consists of a microchip and antenna that, when stimulated by a remote reader, sends back information via radio waves. Yes for implants. People microchip their pets because it allows easy identification when no other means exist. Patriots worry that electronic tracking devices — from microchips to product bar codes to rental vehicle monitoring systems — could be used by an evil government to track and control people.

For humans, you have fingerprints, mugshots and facial recognition software, apart from the non-obligatory electronic appendages people carry around these days. The device is tiny — 2mm x 12mm — and it is certified to retain data track employees through something other than the devices they use. The difference between types is the presence of a power supply. But Alibaba.

If you do not know about this technology yet, you should definitely start familiarizing yourself with it, because the Order today, ships today. These implants are real. Caring for others is never easy. We have photographs, X-rays, and CAT scans of them in place.

A human microchip implant is an integrated circuit device or RFID transponder encased in silicate glass and implanted in the body of a human being. Influencing brain functions became an important goal of Having a microchip can help rescue professionals find you faster instead of placing your dog in a shelter or foster care. Overview: Advanced sub-dermal implantable devices have been developed that can be inserted under a person's skin and used for identification purposes. You will need a Wi-Fi connection in your home for set-up and monitoring. The most obvious reason is they reduce the chances of your dog getting lost.

Live Science is supported by its audience. A microchip implant is an identifying integrated circuit placed under the skin of an animal. There is no GPS or locator. Technology has made it possible for humans to have microchips implanted underneath their skin. High Technology Device Tracking. Medical microchips are an emerging industry. Microchip implants costing privacy. Pet microchip companies are churning high-tech tracking devices for pets with a simple microchip.

Some of the first human implants were demonstrated in Microchips currently do not typically contain any GPS tracking technology and are not considered tracking devices. New American, May 3, A Florida-based company that boasts selling the world's first and only federally approved radio microchip for implanting in humans is now turning its development branch toward "emergency preparedness," hoping to produce an implant that can automatically detect in its host's bloodstream the presence of swine flu or other viruses deemed a "bio-threat.

When most people think of implanting a microchip, it's into a pet, not a person. This type of technology could literally save lives and give parents everywhere peace-of-mind. A technology I have been interested in has been the microchip implant. Implantable microchip devices offer many exciting possibilities in the fields of medicine and scientific research, as well as for Pros And Cons Of Microchip Implant In fact the Bible speaks of a time when no one will be able to buy or sell without a mark Rev RFID chips and other tracking devices continue to be used in increasing numbers in everything, from items we use everyday to items that get put in and on our bodies.

Tracking Junior With a Microchip.